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Obituaries - Printable Version

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RE: Obituaries - pbrower2a - 08-26-2018

A great pen is silenced.

RE: Obituaries - pbrower2a - 08-26-2018

Inge Borkh (26 May 1921 – 26 August 2018) was a German soprano.

Borkh was born as Ingeborg Simon in Mannheim, Germany, in 1921. She was initially an actress and had some training in dance, both of which served her well in opera: she became known both for her voice and for her dramatic intensity – the "singing actress" exemplified, years before the term became common usage.

She studied singing in Milan and made her debut in 1940 at the opera in Lucerne as Czipra in Johann Strauss II's Der Zigeunerbaron. She remained in Switzerland until 1951, when she sang a sensational Magda in the first German-language performance of Gian Carlo Menotti's The Consul in Basel. It was her key to international stardom, leading to engagements in the world's great opera houses: Vienna, Munich, Berlin, London, New York, and San Francisco.

She triumphed in her portrayals of the most challenging dramatic roles: Aida and Lady Macbeth (Verdi); Tosca and Turandot (Puccini); Fidelio (Beethoven); Medea (Cherubini); Elsa, Sieglinde and Senta (Wagner); Helena, Empress and Dyer's Wife (Richard Strauss); Euryanthe (Weber); and Antigone (Carl Orff). But it was as Salome and Elektra – both by Richard Strauss – that she gained her greatest fame. None of her performances were captured on film—except for the Dyer's Wife from Munich—but some of her great performances were recorded, and both complete works as well as excerpts from a wide array of performances are now available on CD. The complete works include Antigone, Turandot, Iphigénie, Medea (Gui), Die Frau ohne Schatten (Keilberth), Die Walkuere (Sieglinde / Bayreuth, Keilberth 1952), and her famed Elektra and Salome (Mitropoulos).

Borkh was one of the leading dramatic sopranos of the 1950s and 1960s, though she recorded infrequently. She can be heard on CD performing Scenes from Elektra and Salome, conducted by Fritz Reiner in the 1950s (RCA Victor 09026 68636-2) as well as a famous 1960 version of Elektra with the Dresden Staatskapelle Opera Chorus and Orchestra conducted by Karl Böhm (Deutsche Grammophon 445 329-2). Her Turandot was recorded for DECCA, conducted by Erede, with del Monaco, Tebaldi and Zaccaria in the other leading roles. Also for DECCA, she recorded a famous recital in which she sings mostly arias from Italian operas. In 1965 she recorded the role of Tove in Schoenberg's Gurre-Lieder under Rafael Kubelik for Deutsche Grammophon.

Borkh retired from opera in 1973 after seven performances of Elektra in Italy, and briefly went back to the theater as an actress of the spoken word. She also for a while turned chanteuse, doing a unique cabaret act, a souvenir recording of which, Inge Borkh singt ihre Memoiren, is available on Preiser CD.

RE: Obituaries - pbrower2a - 09-02-2018

Population geneticist Luigi Luca Cavalli Sforza

Luigi Luca Cavalli-Sforza (Italian: [luˈiːdʒi ˈluːka kaˈvalli ˈsfɔrtsa]; 25 January 1922 – 31 August 2018) was an Italian American population geneticist, who has lectured at Stanford University

Cavalli-Sforza initiated a new field of research by combining the concrete findings of demography with a newly-available analysis of blood groups in an actual human population. He also studied the connections between migration patterns and blood groups.
Writing in the mid-1960s with another genetics student of Ronald A. Fisher, Anthony W. F. Edwards, Cavalli-Sforza pioneered statistical methods for estimating evolutionary trees (phylogenies); to estimate evolutionary trees, they used maximum likelihood estimation. Edwards and Cavalli-Sforza wrote about trees of populations within the human species, where genetic differences are affected both by treelike patterns of historical separation of populations and by spread of genes among populations by migration and admixture. In later papers, Cavalli-Sforza has written about the effects of both divergence and migration on human gene frequencies.

While Cavalli-Sforza is best known for his work in genetics, he also, in collaboration with Marcus Feldman and others, initiated the sub-discipline of cultural anthropology known alternatively as coevolution, gene-culture coevolution, cultural transmission theory or dual inheritance theory. The publication Cultural Transmission and Evolution: A Quantitative Approach (1981) made use of models from population genetics and infectious disease epidemiology to investigate the transmission of culturally transmitted units. This line of inquiry initiated research into the correlation of patterns of genetic and cultural dispersion.

Cavalli-Sforza has summed up his work for laymen in five topics covered in Genes, Peoples, and Languages.[2] According to an article published in The Economist, the work of Cavalli-Sforza "challenges the assumption that there are significant genetic differences between human races, and indeed, the idea that 'race' has any useful biological meaning at all". The book illustrates both the problems of constructing a general "hereditary tree" for the entire human race, and some mechanisms and data analysis methods to greatly reduce these problems, thus constructing a fascinating hypothesis of the recent 150,000 years of human expansion, migration, and human diversity formation.[3] In the book Cavalli-Sforza asserts that Europeans are, in their ancestry, about two-thirds Asian and one-third African.[4]

Cavalli-Sforza's The History and Geography of Human Genes[5] (1994 with Paolo Menozzi and Alberto Piazza) is a standard reference on human genetic variation. Cavalli-Sforza also wrote The Great Human Diasporas: The History of Diversity and Evolution (together with his son Francesco).

Earlier, in the 1970s, he and Walter Bodmer wrote what was the standard textbook on modern human genetics, and was also a basic reference for population genetics more generally, as the field was at the time, The Genetics of Human Populations. WHFreeman, 1971. The two, with Bodmer as first author, later wrote another more basic text, Genetics, Evolution, and Man WHFreeman, 1976. Along with his 1994 book these are essentially classical presentations of human genetics before the genomics era began providing very much more detailed data.

Cavalli-Sforza's proposed Human Genome Diversity Project to gather further genetic data from populations around the world did not advance as he originally envisioned the project.

Cavalli-Sforza has conducted several studies of how language differences may serve as barriers to gene flow between adjacent human populations. His studies of human migration have tested hypotheses of linguists Merritt Ruhlen and Joseph Greenberg about language "superfamilies." The hypothesized superfamilies are controversial among other linguists.[7]

RE: Obituaries - Teejay - 09-02-2018

Vale Luigi Luca Cavalli Sforza

RE: Obituaries - pbrower2a - 09-06-2018

Italian conductor Claudio Scimone

Claudio Scimone (23 December 1934 – 6 September 2018) was an Italian conductor.

He was born in Padua, Italy and studied conducting with Dmitri Mitropoulos and Franco Ferrara.[1] He has established an international reputation as a conductor, as well as a composer. He has revived many baroque and renaissance works. His discography includes over 150 titles,[2] and he has won numerous prizes, including the Grand Prix du Disque of the Académie Charles Cros.

Claudio Scimone was the founder of I Solisti Veneti (the ensemble with which most of his recordings have been made) and at the time of his death was the honorary conductor of the Gulbenkian Orchestra in Lisbon, Portugal.[3]
With the Philharmonia of London, he conducted the first recording of Muzio Clementi’s Symphonies.[4][5]
Scimone led the world to discover the importance of Vivaldi’s theatrical works, beginning with the first modern performance of Orlando furioso, featuring Marilyn Horne and Victoria de Los Angeles.[4]

In the reborn Fenice Claudio Scimone directed the first modern revival of the Venetian version of Maometto secondo by Rossini.[6]

He also gave the modern premieres of Moses in Egypt and Oedipus at Colonus by Rossini, and The Last Judgement by Salieri.
Claudio Scimone was awarded the title of Knight Grand Cross of the Order of Merit of the Italian Republic (the highest ranking honour of the Republic). He was also awarded an honorary law degree from the University of Padua.[4]

RE: Obituaries - pbrower2a - 09-06-2018

Screen and TV actor Burt Reynolds has died.

Quote:He began acting on television in the late 1950s, and made his film debut in Angel Baby (1961). Following a regular role as Ben Frazer in Riverboat, he joined the cast of Gunsmoke as "halfbreed" blacksmith Quint Asper, and performed that role during the years just before the departure of Chester Goode and just after the appearance of Festus Haggen. He used his television work to secure leading roles for low-budget films and played the titular role in the spaghetti western Navajo Joe (1966), before playing the title character in police drama Dan August (1970–71). He later disparaged the series, telling Johnny Carson that Dan August had "two forms of expression: mean and meaner". Reynolds appeared on ABC's The American Sportsman hosted by outdoors journalist Grits Gresham, who took celebrities on hunting, fishing and shooting trips around the world. Saul David considered Reynolds to star in Our Man Flint, but Lew Wasserman rejected him.[21] He had the lead in Impasse (1969) and Shark!, the latter with director Sam Fuller who disowned the rough cuts.[22] Albert R. Broccoli asked Reynolds to play James Bond, but he turned the role down, saying "An American can't play James Bond. It just can't be done."[23] Reynolds made his breakout role in Deliverance and gained notoriety when he posed naked in the April 1972 issue of Cosmopolitan.[24][25] During the 1970s, Reynolds played leading roles in a series of action films and comedies, such as White Lightning (1973), The Man Who Loved Cat Dancing (also 1973), Lucky Lady (1975) or Smokey and the Bandit (1977). He made his directorial debut in 1976 with Gator, the sequel to White Lightning. During the 1980s, his leading roles included The Cannonball Run (1981) and Malone (1987) and All Dogs Go to Heaven (1989). After starring in Paul Thomas Anderson's second film Boogie Nights (1997), Reynolds refused to star in Anderson's third film, Magnolia (1999). Despite this, Reynolds was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor for Boogie Nights.[4][26] He voiced Avery Carrington in Grand Theft Auto: Vice City released in 2002.[27] He had support parts in Miss Lettie and Me (2003) and Without a Paddle (2004), and two high-profile films: the remake of The Longest Yard (2005) and The Dukes of Hazzard (2005).[28] Reynolds turned in a critically-acclaimed performance in the drama The Last Movie Star (2017), one of his last films.[29] In May 2018, he joined the cast for Quentin Tarantino's film Once Upon a Time in Hollywood[30], but died before shooting his scenes[31].

RE: Obituaries - pbrower2a - 09-06-2018

Amway co-founder and billionaire Richard DeVos, Sr.

Quote:Richard Marvin DeVos Sr. (March 4, 1926 – September 6, 2018) was an American billionaire businessman, co-founder of Amway with Jay Van Andel (company restructured as Alticor in 2000), and owner of the Orlando Magic basketball team. In 2012, Forbes magazine listed him as the 60th-wealthiest person in the United States, and the 205th-richest in the world, with an estimated net worth of $5.1 billion.[3] At one point, he was one of the 10 wealthiest Americans.

RE: Obituaries - pbrower2a - 09-10-2018

It happened exactly 120 years ago, back when coal miners were treated as badly as if the coal dust that blackened their faces were from 'excessive melanin' instead. Violence in labor disputes has been the biggest source of political violence culminating in homicide in American history -- even worse in volume than race riots and right-wing terrorism such as the bombing of the Murrah building in Oklahoma City. Just a reminder.

The Lattimer massacre was the violent deaths of at least 19 unarmed striking immigrant anthracite coal miners at the Lattimer mine near Hazleton, Pennsylvania, on September 10, 1897.[1][2] The miners, mostly of Polish, Slovak, Lithuanian and German ethnicity, were shot and killed by a Luzerne County sheriff's posse. Scores more workers were wounded.[3] The massacre was a turning point in the history of the United Mine Workers (UMW).[4]

The economies of Central and Eastern Europe were struggling in the late 19th century. The European rural population was growing faster than either the agricultural or new industrial sectors of the economy could absorb, industrialization was disrupting both the agricultural and craft economy, and there was increasing competition from large-scale commercial and foreign agricultural producers.[5] These factors drove most of the mass immigration to the United States.[5] Disproportionate numbers of new Slavic immigrants worked in the coal mining industry,[5] where they were among the most exploited of all mine workers.[4] During strikes in Northeast Pennsylvania by English-speaking miners in 1875 and 1887, many Slavic miners were imported as strikebreakers, and were "despised as scabs" by the English-speaking immigrant and American miners of the region.[6]

Conditions in coal mines of the late 19th century were harsh. Mine safety was very poor, such that 32,000 miners in Northeast Pennsylvania had lost their lives since 1870.[7] Wages, already low in a highly competitive industry, fell 17 percent during the mid-1890s after a coal industry slump.[4][8] Although wages had improved some by the fall of 1897, anthracite coal companies in the region cut wages and consolidated operations within the mines (often resulting in more laborious working conditions).[4] In some cases, companies forced workers to lease homes from the company and required them to see only company doctors when injured.[4]

In August 1897, the Honey Brook division of the Lehigh and Wilkes-Barre Coal Company laid off workers at its strip mines, cut the pay of the remaining employees, and raised fees for workers residing in the area's company towns.[4] The company consolidated its mule stables, forcing teenage mule drivers to travel much farther each day to pick up their mules (time for which they were not compensated).[4][9] After inconclusive talks, 25 to 35 teenaged drivers struck on August 14, 1897.[4][9] A scuffle between a supervisor and some drivers led to additional walkouts by strip miners as well as underground coal miners, and by August 16 nearly 2,000 workers were on strike.[4][9] Nearly all the miners joined the UMW (United Mine Workers) on August 18, and within two days almost all the mines in the region had closed due to the spreading strike.[1] Many Slavic miners had not joined the nascent United Mine Workers, both because of ethnic discrimination exhibited by English-speaking and American miners but also because of the poor relationships between unionized miners and the former strikebreakers.[6] But worsening working conditions and a UMW call for a 15 percent wage increase drew many Slavic miners into the union.[1][10]

The first wave of the strike ended on August 23, after the company agreed to pay overtime, bring wages up to the regional average, allow miners to see their own doctors when injured, and no longer force miners to live in company-owned housing.[4] A second strike began on August 25. Teenaged breaker boys at the A.S. Van Wickle coal breaker in the nearby village of Colerain struck for higher wages as well.[4] When Van Wickle attempted to use Slavic workers as strikebreakers, the Slavs joined the strike instead. Although the strike spread to two other nearby coal works, the company quickly agreed to raise wages up to the regional average and the strike ended on or about August 28.[4]

But when the new pay rates were announced on September 1, only a limited number of workers received raises.[4][10] Management did agree to treat Slavic workers more fairly,[10] but the mine owners reneged on their other promises.[4] The strikes resumed. On September 3, 3,000 workers marched on four mines, shutting them down.[1][11]

The mine owners' private armed force, the Coal and Iron Police, proved too few in number to break the strike, so the owners appealed for help from Luzerne County Sheriff James F. Martin.[10] Martin established a posse of about 100 English and Irish citizens to prevent any further marches from occurring.[1][2] Within five days, 8,000 to 10,000 miners were on strike.[1][4][12] On September 8, mine owners demanded that the sheriff of Schuylkill County arrest several thousand miners who had assembled near Pottsville and had forced a mine to shut down, but the sheriff refused.[10]

 On Friday, September 10, about 300 to 400 unarmed strikers—nearly all of them Slavs and Germans—marched to a coal mine owned by Calvin Pardee at the town of Lattimer to support a newly formed UMW union.[1][2][4][9][10] Their goal was to support the newly formed UMW union at the still-open Lattimer mine.[2][9] The demonstrators were confronted by law enforcement officials several times on the road and ordered to disperse, but kept marching.[10]

The deputies had spent most of the morning joking about how many miners they would kill.[13] While on a streetcar headed for Lattimer with the sheriff and his comrades, one deputy was overheard saying "I bet I drop six of them when I get over there."[14][15]
When the demonstrators reached Lattimer at 3:45 pm, they were met again by the sheriff and 150 armed deputies.[2][9][16] Sheriff Martin ordered the marchers to disperse, and then attempted to grab an American flag out of the hands of the lead marcher.[2][9][17] A scuffle ensued, and the police opened fire on the unarmed crowd.[2] At least 19 miners died, and anywhere from 17 to 49 others wounded.[1][2][3][9][17] Many had been shot in the back, and several had multiple gunshot wounds which indicated that they had been targeted by the deputies.[10][18]

 The strike led to temporary mob rule in the area. After Sheriff Martin telephoned for help, the Pennsylvania National Guard was dispatched to the county to restore order.[10][19] Late on the evening of September 10, more than 2,500 troops of the Third Brigade (partly stationed in Luzerne County) had been deployed.[19] Local Slavic community leaders held a rally on September 11 to try to calm the workers, raise money for the provision of the families, and seek the prosecution of Sheriff Martin and his deputies.[10] Outraged miners searched in vain on September 12 for Lehigh and Wilkes-Barre Coal Company mine superintendent Gomer Jones, and destroyed his home when they could not find him.[10] On September 20, a group of Slavic women (armed with fireplace pokers and rolling pins) led some 150 men and boys to shut down the McAdoo coal works, but were turned back by the quick arrival of National Guard troops.[19][20] The Guard's artillery unit was withdrawn on September 24, and the rest of the troops five days later.[19]

Sheriff Martin and 73 deputies were arrested and put on trial.[9][10] At trial, the defendants claimed that the marchers had refused to obey an order to disperse and were charging toward the sheriff and his deputies.[18] As recounted by witness John Pusti in formal testimony:

Quote:I was with the strikers when the shooting occurred. When we approached the Sheriff he walked to the middle of the road and told us to stop. Some few of the men went forward, and I then heard two volleys from the deputies. None of the strikers was armed. I was shot in the right arm and as I started to run I was shot in the right leg, the ball entering from the back and coming out in front.[21]

Further medical evidence showed that nearly all the strikers had been shot in the back.[10][18] Nonetheless, the sheriff and his deputies were acquitted.[9][10]

The Lattimer massacre was a turning point in the history of the United Mine Workers (UMW).[4] The UMW, struggling to establish itself in Pennsylvania's coal mines, witnessed a dramatic upsurge of more than 10,000 new members.[9][10] The incident helped end a longstanding myth about the docility of non-English speaking miners.[22] Just three years later, the union was powerful enough to win large wage increases and safety improvements for miners throughout the region.[2] It significantly boosted the union career of John Mitchell, an activist for the UMW who would be elected president of the national union due to his efforts during the Lattimer strikes.[23]
The crossroads where the Lattimer massacre occurred remained unmarked for 80 years. In 1972, the United Labor Council of Lower Luzerne and Carbon Counties and the UMW erected a small memorial on the site.[24]

RE: Obituaries - pbrower2a - 09-10-2018

I doubt that even Donald Trump considers that an expression of how American 'greatness' is to be restored.

RE: Obituaries - pbrower2a - 09-10-2018

Chelsi Smith, Miss USA 1995 and Miss Universe 1995

Chelsi Mariam Pearl Smith (August 23, 1973 – September 8, 2018) was an American actress, singer, television host and beauty queen who won Miss USA 1995 and Miss Universe 1995.[2] She was the third winner of the Miss USA pageant with African-American heritage behind 1990 Miss USA winner Carole Gist and 1993 Miss USA winner Kenya Moore.[3][4]

Smith was born in Redwood City, California,[5] to 19-year-old parents Craig Smith, an African-American maintenance man, and Mary Denise Trimble, a white American secretary.[6] Her parents divorced before she was two, and her mother, an alcoholic at the time, granted Smith's maternal grandparents Barnie and Jeanette custody of her.[5]

When Smith was seven, she moved with her grandparents to Kingwood, Texas, where they would later get divorced as well, causing Smith to grow up in a divided home while she attended high school in Deer Park.[5] Prior to her win at Miss USA, she was a sophomore majoring in education at San Jacinto College.[3][7]

Smith competed in her first major beauty contest in 1994, when she was a semifinalist in the Miss Texas USA pageant, as Miss South East Texas USA.[8] The following year she competed again as Miss Galveston County USA, and won the title, as well as the Miss Congeniality award.[9] Smith, a multiracial American,[10] was one of the first titleholders of African-American heritage in the pageant's history.[11]

Smith went on to compete in the 1995 Miss USA pageant on February 10, 1995. During the final telecast, Smith obtained the highest average preliminary score and entering the semifinals in first place, becoming the fourth consecutive woman from her state to make the semifinals. She became a semifinalist, and advanced to the top six in first place. The next two rounds of competition: the Top 6 judges' questions and the Top 3 final question.
When asked how she, as an advisor, would change the First Lady's image if asked for a consultation, Smith replied: "I would tell her not to change her image, actually. I believe very strongly in who I am, and I've seen 50 ladies tonight who believe very strongly in who they are, and I really think that she wouldn't have made it as far as she has if she wouldn't have been herself, so I really truly think she should stay exactly the way she is."[12] She became the seventh woman from her state to hold the Miss USA title and also won the Miss Congeniality award as she had at her state pageant, becoming the only Miss USA winner and Miss Texas USA in history to win this award.[13]

After her crowning, Smith was a celebrity contestant on Wheel of Fortune[5] and an award presenter at the People's Choice Awards.[8]

After becoming Miss USA, Smith traveled to Windhoek, Namibia to compete in the 1995 Miss Universe pageant, broadcast live from Windhoek Country Club on May 12, 1995. She was again the highest placed contestant after the preliminary competition, which propelled her into the top ten. Once again, Smith was among the final 3 contestants and went on to win the title ahead of first runner-up Manpreet Brar of India, becoming the first Miss USA to capture the Miss Universe crown in 15 years.[14][15]

As a model, Smith worked for Hawaiian Tropic, Jantzen,[16] Pontiac, Venus Swimwear, and Pure Protein among others.[17] She made appearances on Martin, Due South and the TLC documentary, The History of the Bathing Suit.[17]

With the support of Music World Entertainment/Sony, Smith co-wrote and recorded with producer Damon Elliott her first single, "Dom Da Da", part of the soundtrack for The Sweetest Thing, starring Cameron Diaz.[17]

In 2003, she acted in an independent film (Playas Ball on IMDb ) where she co-starred with Allen Payne and Elise Neal. She also co-hosted Beyoncé Knowles' special Beyonce: Family and Friends Tour on pay-per-view and appeared on HBO in Saladin Patterson's short film (One Flight Stand on IMDb ) with Marc Blucas and Aisha Tyler. She was also a judge at the 2006 Miss Teen USA pageant.[18]

In 2011, she was presented the Influential Multiracial Public Figure award.[19] In 2016, she was guest judge for the Miss Peru 2016 beauty pageant.[20]

Smith married fitness coach Kelly Blair[5] after her reign as Miss Universe and moved to Los Angeles. They later divorced.[21]

Smith died at the age of 45 on September 8, 2018, of liver cancer.[2][22][23]

RE: Obituaries - pbrower2a - 09-21-2018

Dave Barrett, journalist

Barrett began his career at the University of Houston's KUHF while a student at the university. In a 2015 interview, Barrett described himself as being at the station "ALL the time" while filling various roles from sports play-by-play announcing, sports newscasts, and music host. His work at KUHF led him to being offered an internship at KTRH in the Houston market, which was blocked by William Hawes,[3] who was a supervisor for KUHF at that time.[4] Barrett would wind up working at KTRH over Hawes' objection during the summer of 1974 and be hired as a part-time employee later that year.[3] He would work for several Houston radio stations, including KLOL and KPRC until late 1981.[3]

From Houston, Barrett's career took him from the local level to the national stage with Fox, ABC, and CBS.[5] Barrett also worked for multiple sports franchises in the Houston area, including the Houston Astros, Houston Rockets, Houston Oilers, Houston Aeros, Houston Apollos, and the University of Houston, his alma mater.[5][6]

In December 1981, Barrett began working for ABC Radio News and would remain with the network for eleven years before moving to ESPN Radio for two years, beginning in December 1992.[3] He returned to ABC in 1994. In December 1998, he moved to Fox News,[3] where he served as news director for Fox News Radio Network before moving to CBS in February 2001.[3][5]

Barrett covered ten Olympic Games during his career.[5]

During his career spanning from the 1970s until 2018, Barrett won multiple industry awards, including the Edward R. Murrow Award[7][8] three times.[5]

RE: Obituaries - pbrower2a - 09-21-2018

Arthur Mitchell, founder of the Dance Theater of Harlem

Arthur Mitchell (March 27, 1934 – September 19, 2018)[1] was an American ballet dancer, choreographer, and founder and director of ballet companies. In 1955, he was the first African-American dancer with the New York City Ballet, where he was promoted to principal dancer the following year and danced in major roles until 1966. He then founded ballet companies in Spoleto, Washington, D.C., and Brazil. In 1986, he founded a training school and the first African-American classical ballet company, Dance Theatre of Harlem. Among other awards, Mitchell was recognized as a MacArthur Fellow, inducted into the National Museum of Dance's Mr. & Mrs. Cornelius Vanderbilt Whitney Hall of Fame, and received the United States National Medal of Arts and a Fletcher Foundation fellowship.

Mitchell was one of four siblings, the son of a building superintendent, and grew up in the streets of Harlem, New York.[1] Forced at the age of 12 to assume financial responsibility for his family in the wake of his father's incarceration, Mitchell worked numerous jobs, including shoe-shining, mopping floors, newspaper delivery, and work in a meat shop. Despite his duties, Mitchell became involved with street gangs, though this did not ultimately deter him from finding success.[2]

As a teenager, Mitchell was encouraged by a guidance counselor to apply for admission to the High School of Performing Arts.[1] Upon being accepted he decided to work towards having a career in classical ballet. Following his graduation in the early 1950s, he won a dance award and scholarship to study at the School of American Ballet, the school affiliated with the New York City Ballet.[1] In 1954, following his 1952 Broadway debut in the opera Four Saints in Three Acts, Mitchell would return to Broadway to perform in the Harold Arlen musical House of Flowers,[1] alongside Diahann Carroll, Geoffrey Holder, Alvin Ailey, Carmen de Lavallade, and Pearl Bailey.[3]

In 1955 Mitchell made his debut as the first African American with the New York City Ballet (NYCB), performing in Western Symphony.[1] Rising to the position of principal dancer with the company in 1956, he performed in all the major ballets in its repertoire, including A Midsummer Night's Dream, The Nutcracker, Bugaku, Agon, and Arcade.[4]

Choreographer and director of the NYCB George Balanchine created the pas de deux in Agon especially for Mitchell and the white Southern ballerina Diana Adams.[1] Audience members initially complained about partnering Mitchell with a white woman, but Balanchine refused to change the pairing. Although Mitchell danced this role with white partners throughout the world, he could not perform it on commercial television in the United States until 1968, when the performance aired on Johnny Carson's The Tonight Show.[4]
Mitchell left the New York City Ballet in 1966 to appear in several Broadway shows, and helped found ballet companies in Spoleto, Washington, D.C., and Brazil, where he directed a dance company. The company he founded in Brazil was the National Ballet Company of Brazil.[4]

 After the assassination of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. in 1968, Mitchell returned to Harlem, where he was determined to provide opportunities in dance for the children in that community. A year later, he and his teacher, Karel Shook, inaugurated a classical ballet school.[1][5] Mitchell had $25,000 of his own money to start the school. About a year later he received $315,000 in a matching funds grant from the Ford Foundation.[2] The Dance Theatre of Harlem (DTH) was born in 1969 with 30 children in a church basement in a community where resources of talent and creative energy were virtually untapped. Two months later, Mitchell had attracted 400 youngsters to attend classes. Two years later they presented their first productions as a professional company. Mitchell used his personal savings to convert a garage into the company's home.[4][6]

In Harlem, DTH created an explosion of professional opportunity in dance, music, and other related theater activities. The school has an outstanding number of former students who have been successfully engaged in careers as dancers and musicians, as technicians in production, stagecraft, and wardrobe, and in instruction and arts administration. With this success, DTH challenged the classical dance world to review its stereotypes and revise its boundaries.[4]

Mitchell received numerous awards in recognition of his groundbreaking work and achievements, including:
In addition, Mitchell received honorary doctorates from numerous leading universities, including University of North Carolina School of the Arts (1985),[16] Juilliard School (1990),[17] Hamilton College, Brown University (1996),[18] City College of New York, Harvard University,[19] The New School for Social Research, Williams College,[19] Yale University (2001),[20] Southern Methodist University (2009)[21] and Columbia University (2016).[22] He also received awards from the City of New York and community organizations.[citation needed]

RE: Obituaries - pbrower2a - 09-25-2018

One never knows what one loses when someone dies for no explicable reason before (in her case, her) time:

Celia Barquín Arozamena (6 July 1996 – 17 September 2018) was a Spanish amateur golfer. She won the 2018 European Ladies Amateur Championship.

Barquín was born in Puente San Miguel (es) and educated in Torrelavega and then in Madrid. She spent two years in a residential training programme run by the Spanish Sports Council before moving to the United States,[1] where she was a member of the Iowa State Cyclones women's golf team from 2014 to 2018 and was the Iowa State University Female Athlete of the Year for 2018.[2]

She played for Spain at the 2015 and 2016 European Ladies' Team Championship, where the team finished third and second respectively.[3] She won the 2018 European Ladies Amateur Championship held at the Penati Golf Resort in Slovakia, finishing a stroke ahead of Esther Henseleit.[4][5] In the third round, she set a course record of 63.[3] She qualified for the 2018 U.S. Women's Open, where she missed the cut. In 2018, she reached Stage II of the LPGA Q-School, which is to be played in mid-October.[3]

Barquín was in her final year of a degree in civil engineering after completing her eligibility for the university golf team with the 2017–2018 season.[2] On 17 September 2018 at 10:24 a.m., the Ames Police Department were called and discovered her dead body at the Coldwater Golf Links in Ames, Iowa.[6] A 22-year-old homeless man who had been living in a homeless encampment near the golf course, was charged with her murder. He told a fellow homeless man that he had "an urge to rape and kill a woman" according to The New York Times.[2][3][7]

Barquín, the most accomplished women's golfer in Iowa State University history, was honored on Saturday, 22 September 2018, at Jack Trice Stadium in Ames, Iowa. At 10:50 a.m. CDT (UTC−05:00), a video tribute and a moment of silence in honor of her will occur at Jack Trice Stadium before the Iowa State vs. Akron football game. Fans were asked to wear her favorite color, yellow, and to be in their seats by 10:45 a.m. Additionally, in her honor, the Iowa State football team wore her initials, CBA, as a decal on their helmets and the Iowa State University Cyclone Football Varsity Marching Band will form a CBA during their routine. Posthumously, Barquín will receive a civil engineering diploma from Iowa State University.[7][8]

Prior to her death, Barquín was to receive the Iowa State female student-athlete of the year award at Jack Trice Stadium on 22 September 2018.[9][10]


RE: Obituaries - pbrower2a - 09-25-2018

Sir Charles Kuen Kao GBM KBE FRS FREng,[5][6][7][8][9] (4 November 1933 – 23 September 2018[10]) was a Hong Kong-American-British electrical engineer and physicist who pioneered the development and use of fibre optics in telecommunications. In the 1960s, Kao created various methods to combine glass fibres with lasers in order to transmit digital data, which laid the groundwork for the evolution of the Internet. "Communication as we know it, including the Internet, would not exist without fiber optics," said William Wulf, president of the National Academy of Engineering in 1999.[11]

Known as the "Godfather of Broadband",[12] the "Father of Fibre Optics",[13][14][15][16][11] and the "Father of Fiber Optic Communications",[17][18] Kao was awarded the 2009 Nobel Prize in Physics for "groundbreaking achievements concerning the transmission of light in fibers for optical communication".[19] Kao held citizenships in the United Kingdom, and the United States, as well as having been a permanent resident of Hong Kong.[12]

In the 1960s at Standard Telecommunication Laboratories (STL) based in Harlow, Essex, Kao and his co-workers did their pioneering work in the realisation of fibre optics as a telecommunications medium, by demonstrating that the high-loss of existing fibre optics arose from impurities in the glass, rather than from an underlying problem with the technology itself.[36]

In 1963, when Charles first joined the optical communications research team he made notes summarising the background[37] situation and available technology at the time, and identifying the key individuals[37] involved. Initially Kao worked in the team of Antoni E. Karbowiak (Toni Karbowiak), who was working under Alec Reeves to study optical waveguides for communications. Kao's task was to investigate fibre attenuation, for which he collected samples from different fibre manufacturers and also investigated the properties of bulk glasses carefully. Kao's study primarily convinced himself that the impurities in material caused the high light losses of those fibres.[38] Later that year, Kao was appointed head of the electro-optics research group at STL.[39] He took over the optical communication program of STL in December 1964, because his supervisor, Karbowiak, left to take the Chair in Communications in the School of Electrical Engineering at the University of New South Wales (UNSW), Sydney, Australia.[40]

Although Kao succeeded Karbowiak as manager of optical communications research, he immediately decided to abandon Karbowiak's plan (thin-film waveguide) and overall change research direction with his colleague George Hockham.[38][40] They not only considered optical physics but also the material properties. The results were first presented by Kao to the IEE in January 1966 in London, and further published in July with George Hockham (1964–1965 worked with Kao).[41]a[›] This study first theorized and proposed to use glass fibres to implement optical communication, the ideas (especially structural features and materials) described are largely the basis of today's optical fibre communications.

In 1965,[39][42]b[›] Kao with Hockham concluded that the fundamental limitation for glass light attenuation is below 20 dB/km (decibels per kilometer, is a measure of the attenuation of a signal over a distance), which is a key threshold value for optical communications.[43] However, at the time of this determination, optical fibres commonly exhibited light loss as high as 1,000 dB/km and even more. This conclusion opened the intense race to find low-loss materials and suitable fibres for reaching such criteria.

Kao, together with his new team (members including T.W. Davies, M.W. Jones, and C.R. Wright), pursued this goal by testing various materials. They precisely measured the attenuation of light with different wavelengths in glasses and other materials. During this period, Kao pointed out that the high purity of fused silica (SiO2) made it an ideal candidate for optical communication. Kao also stated that the impurity of glass material is the main cause for the dramatic decay of light transmission inside glass fibre, rather than fundamental physical effects such as scattering as many physicists thought at that time, and such impurity could be removed. This led to a worldwide study and production of high-purity glass fibres.[44] When Kao first proposed that such glass fibre could be used for long-distance information transfer and could replace copper wires which were used for telecommunication during that era,[45] his ideas were widely disbelieved; later people realized that Kao's ideas revolutionized the whole communication technology and industry.

He also played a leading role in the early stage of engineering and commercial realization of optical communication.[46] In spring 1966, Kao traveled to the U.S. but failed to interest Bell Labs, which was a competitor of STL in communication technology at that time.[47] He subsequently traveled to Japan and gained support.[47] Kao visited many glass and polymer factories, discussed with various people including engineers, scientists, businessmen about the techniques and improvement of glass fiber manufacture. In 1969, Kao with M.W. Jones measured the intrinsic loss of bulk-fused silica at 4 dB/km, which is the first evidence of ultra-transparent glass. Bell Labs started considering fibre optics seriously.[47]

Kao developed important techniques and configurations for glass fibre waveguides, and contributed to the development of different fibre types and system devices which met both civil and militaryc[›] application requirements, and peripheral supporting systems for optical fiber communication.[46] In mid-1970s, he did seminal work on glass fiber fatigue strength.[46] When named the first ITT Executive Scientist, Kao launched the "Terabit Technology" program in addressing the high frequency limits of signal processing, so Kao is also known as the "Father of the Terabit Technology Concept".[46][48] Kao has published more than 100 papers and was granted over 30 patents,[46] including the water-resistant high-strength fibers (with M.S. Maklad).[49]

At an early stage of developing optic fibres, Kao already strongly preferred single mode for long-distance optical communication, instead of using multi-mode systems. His vision later was followed and now is applied almost exclusively.[44][50] Kao was also a visionary of modern submarine communications cables and largely promoted this idea. He predicted in 1983 that world's seas would be littered with fibre optics, five years ahead of the time that such a trans-oceanic fibre-optic cable first became serviceable.[51]

li Javan's introduction of a steady helium–neon laser and Kao's discovery of fibre light-loss properties now are recognized as the two essential milestones for the development of fiber-optic communications.[40]

 More here at Wikipedia.

RE: Obituaries - pbrower2a - 09-27-2018

Comedy producer Ernest Maxin dies aged 95

Thursday 27th September 2018, 4:46pm

Comedy producer and director Ernest Maxin has died aged 95
He worked with many comedians across his long career, including Dave Allen, Dick Emery and Les Dawson
He also worked on The Morecambe & Wise Show, overseeing some of its most famous episodes

Maxin won a BAFTA for The Morecambe & Wise Show's 1977 Christmas special. The celebrated episode - which starred Elton John and Penelope Keith - was watched by over 21 million viewers on its first broadcast alone. It remains one of the most viewed programmes in UK television history.

He also won the prestigious international Golden Rose award for Charlie Drake's version of the 1812 Overture.

Born in August 1923, Maxin began producing comedy in the 1950s. One of his earliest television jobs was directing Running Wild in 1954; Morecambe & Wise's first TV vehicle. It was a notorious failure after BBC bosses forced the pair to work with new writers outside their comfort zone.

Other early work included one of Frankie Howerd's first TV series, The Howerd Crowd. Maxin would go on to collaborate with star names to bring formats including The Jewel And Warriss Show and The Norman Wisdom Show to the screen.

He also worked for ITV broadcasters during his hugely prolific career, with credits including the hit sitcom Our House. Created by original Carry On scriptwriter Norman Hudis, it starred various regular cast members from the films, including Hattie Jacques, Charles Hawtrey, Joan Sims and Bernard Bresslaw.

The 1970s saw him working on many more comedy shows, including over 40 episodes of the hugely successful sketch series, The Dick Emery Show.

As depicted in the recent BBC drama Eric, Ernie And Me, which Maxin attended a premiere screening of last year at the BBC, in 1975 he took over from John Ammonds as the producer of The Morecambe & Wise Show.

His first episode with the duo was their 1975 Christmas special. He went on to produce their final - ninth - BBC series, as well as the 1976 special - featuring the famous Singin' In The Rain sketch, and the 1977 festive special.

He continued producing comedy into the 1980s, working on formats including The Les Dawson Show.

Maxin remained in involved in comedy even during his retirement. In 1996, BBC One broadcast Over Here, a comedy drama series set at an air-base in East England in 1942. Written by Only Fools & Horses' John Sullivan, it was based on an idea of Maxin's.

In recent years he contributed to various programmes about comedy and light entertainment, including 50 Greatest Comedy Sketches; The Story Of Light Entertainment; and Morecambe & Wise: The Whole Story.

Below is the famous Stripper sketch from the final series of Morecambe & Wise Show, which was conceived by Maxin when he realised - the night before the episode's recording - that he was one sketch short of the necessary episode run-time.

RE: Obituaries - pbrower2a - 09-28-2018

Writer of the books for the musicals Cabaret and She Loves Me

Joe Masteroff, Librettist of Cabaret, Dies at 98
By Robert Simonson
Sep 28, 2018
The Tony winner also wrote the books to She Loves Me and 70, Girls, 70.

[Image: ?]

Joe Masteroff Joseph Marzullo/WENN

Joe Masteroff, a musical bookwriter from Broadway’s golden age whose reputation rests primarily on two Harold Prince-directed shows, Cabaret and She Loves Me, died September 28, 2018, at the Actors Fund Home in Englewood, New Jersey. He was 98.

Masteroff’s two most famous libretti were among the most literate and play-like to be found on Broadway in the 1960s. Both were based on existing works. She Loves Me, composed by Jerry Bock and Sheldon Harnick, drew from Parfumerie by the Hungarian writer Miklos Laszlo, about two store clerks who mutually loathe each other, not knowing they are also one another’s admiring pen pals. (The same play was the basis of the movie The Shop Around the Corner.) Years later, New York Times critic Frank Rich said the “Schnitzler-flavored book for the musical is a model of construction and taste.”

Caberet, the musical work of John Kander and Fred Ebb, was based on both Christopher Isherwood’s The Berlin Stories and I Am a Camera, the John Van Druten play inspired by it. It followed writer Clifford Bradshaw through a disillusioning affair with both Weimer Germany and one of its decadent denizens, Sally Bowles. Mr. Masteroff was nominated for a Tony Award for She Loves Me in 1964. He won three years later for Cabaret.
Mr. Masteroff had one more significant Broadway credit, the 1971 short-lived Kander and Ebb musical 70 Girls 70. He was also brought in to doctor Jerry Herman's Dear World in 1969.

Born in Philadelphia on December 11, 1919, he studied at Temple University and the American Theatre Wing, and began his theatre career as an actor, making his Broadway debut in that capacity in The Prescott Proposals in 1953. Six years later, he reappeared on Broadway as a playwright with The Warm Peninsula, a Julie Harris vehicle that ran a few months.

While not a success, The Warm Peninsula attracted the attention of producer Lawrence N. Kasha. “Larry came to Jerry and me with this proposal,” Harnick told the New York Times, “and said, ‘There’s a young playwright who did a show with Julie Harris called The Warm Peninsula, and we’d like to use him.’ And we had seen it and said it sounds great to us.”

“I told them, ‘I’ve never written a musical,’“ recalled Masteroff, “and Sheldon said, ‘Don’t write a musical; write a play.’ When I came to a place where I thought there should be a song, I would write it as a monologue. A lot of book writers say, ‘Here there would be a song in which she says how much she loves him.’ I just wrote the whole thing, and then Sheldon would use some of that material or not.”

For his libretto, Masteroff was inspired mainly by the 1940 movie, which starred James Stewart. “I was always fascinated with the thought,” he said, “that the show took place about 1938, and I said in two years a lot of the people are going to be dead, or their lives totally ruined, and it fascinated me. It gave the material such another twist that there was always that underlying darkness. And maybe some of the cynicism in the script came from that.”

In Cabaret, Masteroff was dealing with the same weighty time period, though the action was set not in Hungary but in Germany. Prince had acquired the rights to the material, and had commissioned Masteroff to write the book, throwing out an existing book and score by Sandy Wilson. Masteroff’s dark, forboding libretto was distributed between presentational, neo-Brechtian Kander and Ebb songs sung by Bowles and the sinister Emcee at the Kit Kat Club.
In 1996, Masteroff resurfaced with Paramour, a new musical he wrote with Howard Marren based on Waltz of the Toreadors by Jean Anouilh. He wrote both the book and lyrics. The show was workshopped at the O’Neill Theater Center in Waterford, Connecticut, and then presented at the Old Globe in 1998. He also wrote the libretto for an operatic adaptation of O’Neill’s Desire Under the Elms.

Comment: Cabaret is my favorite horror story. Think of the elements -- freakish characters, bad things happening to good people, and that the only likeable characters in the story (the Jews)... well, we know what is going to happen.

RE: Obituaries - Eric the Green - 09-29-2018

I will miss Marty Balin and Paul Kantner too. They did so much to awaken America and bring it a new music. The best psychedelic rock group of the San Francisco sound. I sometimes wonder what we will do without our leaders. They die too soon. In so many fields, the new generations don't seem able to replace them yet.

Jefferson Airplane Co-Founder Marty Balin Dead at 76
Hall of Famer and co-vocalist of San Francisco psychedelic rock band also founded Jefferson Starship

[Image: GettyImages-115857280.jpg?crop=900:600&width=1440]

Jefferson Airplane vocalist-guitarist Marty Balin, who co-founded the San Francisco psychedelic rock band in 1965 and played a crucial role in the creation of all their 1960s albums, including Surrealistic Pillow and Volunteers, died Thursday at the age of 76. Balin’s rep confirmed the musician’s death to Rolling Stone, though the cause of death is currently unknown.

“Marty and I were young together in a time that defined our lives,” Jefferson Airplane guitarist Jorma Kaukonen wrote on his blog. “Had it not been for him, my life would have taken an alternate path I cannot imagine. He and Paul Kantner came together and like plutonium halves in a reactor started a chain reaction that still affects many of us today. It was a moment of powerful synchronicity. I was part of it to be sure, but I was not a prime mover. Marty always reached for the stars and he took us along with him.”

Born Martyn Jerel Buchwald, Balin was a struggling folk guitarist on the San Francisco scene when he formed a band with Paul Kantner after meeting the 12-string guitarist at a hootenanny. They met up with guitarist Jorma Kaukonen, bassist Jack Casady, drummer Skip Spence and singer Signe Toly Anderson and cut their 1966 debut LP Jefferson Airplane Takes Off. They developed a strong following around the budding San Francisco rock scene, but became nationwide superstars in 1967 when Anderson left the group and was replaced by Grace Slick.

Balin co-wrote five songs on their breakthrough LP Surrealistic Pillow , including “Comin’ Back to Me” and album opener “She Has Funny Cars,” and his tenor voice became a key component of their signature sound. He played with the group at all of their most famous gigs, including the 1967 Human Be-In in San Francisco’s Golden Gate Park, The Monterey Pop Festival, Woodstock and Altamont. At the latter gig, Balin was brutally beaten by the Hells Angels after he dove into the audience to help an audience member in distress. “I woke up with all these boot marks all over my body,” he told Relix in 1993. “I just walked out there. I remember Jorma saying, ‘Hey, you’re a crazy son of a bitch.'”

My favorite. Great work:

RE: Obituaries - Marypoza - 09-29-2018

(09-29-2018, 04:12 PM)Eric the Green Wrote: I will miss Marty Balin and Paul Kantner too. They did so much to awaken America and bring it a new music. The best psychedelic rock group of the San Francisco sound. I sometimes wonder what we will do without our leaders. They die too soon. In so many fields, the new generations don't seem able to replace them yet.

Jefferson Airplane Co-Founder Marty Balin Dead at 76
Hall of Famer and co-vocalist of San Francisco psychedelic rock band also founded Jefferson Starship

[Image: GettyImages-115857280.jpg?crop=900:600&width=1440]

Jefferson Airplane vocalist-guitarist Marty Balin, who co-founded the San Francisco psychedelic rock band in 1965 and played a crucial role in the creation of all their 1960s albums, including Surrealistic Pillow and Volunteers, died Thursday at the age of 76. Balin’s rep confirmed the musician’s death to Rolling Stone, though the cause of death is currently unknown.

“Marty and I were young together in a time that defined our lives,” Jefferson Airplane guitarist Jorma Kaukonen wrote on his blog. “Had it not been for him, my life would have taken an alternate path I cannot imagine. He and Paul Kantner came together and like plutonium halves in a reactor started a chain reaction that still affects many of us today. It was a moment of powerful synchronicity. I was part of it to be sure, but I was not a prime mover. Marty always reached for the stars and he took us along with him.”

Born Martyn Jerel Buchwald, Balin was a struggling folk guitarist on the San Francisco scene when he formed a band with Paul Kantner after meeting the 12-string guitarist at a hootenanny. They met up with guitarist Jorma Kaukonen, bassist Jack Casady, drummer Skip Spence and singer Signe Toly Anderson and cut their 1966 debut LP Jefferson Airplane Takes Off. They developed a strong following around the budding San Francisco rock scene, but became nationwide superstars in 1967 when Anderson left the group and was replaced by Grace Slick.

Balin co-wrote five songs on their breakthrough LP Surrealistic Pillow , including “Comin’ Back to Me” and album opener “She Has Funny Cars,” and his tenor voice became a key component of their signature sound. He played with the group at all of their most famous gigs, including the 1967 Human Be-In in San Francisco’s Golden Gate Park, The Monterey Pop Festival, Woodstock and Altamont. At the latter gig, Balin was brutally beaten by the Hells Angels after he dove into the audience to help an audience member in distress. “I woke up with all these boot marks all over my body,” he told Relix in 1993. “I just walked out there. I remember Jorma saying, ‘Hey, you’re a crazy son of a bitch.'”

My favorite. Great work:

RlP Marty

RE: Obituaries - pbrower2a - 10-03-2018

Charles Aznavour, French singer of world renown:

Charles Aznavour (/æznəvʊər/; French: [ʃaʁl aznavuʁ]; born Shahnour Vaghinag Aznavourian, Armenian: Շահնուր Վաղինակ Ազնաւուրեան; 22 May 1924 – 1 October 2018)[1][A] was a French[4] singer, lyricist, actor, public activist and diplomat. Aznavour was known for his distinctive tenor[5] voice: clear and ringing in its upper reaches, with gravelly and profound low notes. In a career spanning over 70 years, he recorded more than 1,200 songs interpreted in eight languages.[6] He wrote or co-wrote more than 1,000 songs for himself and others.
Aznavour was one of France's most popular and enduring singers.[7][8] He sold 180 million records[9][10][11][12] during his lifetime and was dubbed France's Frank Sinatra,[13][14] while music critic Stephen Holden described Aznavour as a "French pop deity".[15] He was also arguably the most famous Armenian of his time.[7][16] In 1998, Aznavour was named Entertainer of the Century by CNN and users of Time Online from around the globe. He was recognized as the century's outstanding performer, with nearly 18% of the total vote, edging out Elvis Presley and Bob Dylan.[17]

Aznavour sang for presidents, popes and royalty, as well as at humanitarian events. In response to the 1988 Armenian earthquake, he founded the charitable organization Aznavour for Armenia along with his long-time friend impresario Levon Sayan. In 2009, he was appointed ambassador of Armenia to Switzerland, as well as Armenia's permanent delegate to the United Nations at Geneva.[18] He started his most recent tour in 2014.
On 24 August 2017, Aznavour was awarded the 2,618th star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame. Later that year he and his sister were awarded the Raoul Wallenberg Award for sheltering Jews during World War II. His last concert took place in NHK Hall in Tokyo on 17 September 2018.[19]

Much more at the Wiki.

RE: Obituaries - pbrower2a - 10-04-2018

Great physicist.

Leon Max Lederman (July 15, 1922 – October 3, 2018) was an American experimental physicist who received the Wolf Prize in Physics in 1982, along with Martin Lewis Perl, for their research on quarks and leptons, and the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1988, along with Melvin Schwartz and Jack Steinberger, for their research on neutrinos.

Lederman was Director Emeritus of Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) in Batavia, Illinois. He founded the Illinois Mathematics and Science Academy, in Aurora, Illinois in 1986, and was Resident Scholar Emeritus there from 2012 until his death in 2018.[2][3]
An accomplished scientific writer, he became known for his book The God Particle establishing the importance of the Higgs boson.
In 2012, he was awarded the Vannevar Bush Award for his extraordinary contributions to understanding the basic forces and particles of nature.[4]

 After receiving his Ph.D and then becoming a faculty member at Columbia University he was promoted to full professor in 1958 as Eugene Higgins Professor of Physics.[9]:796 In 1960, on leave from Columbia, he spent some time at CERN in Geneva as a Ford Foundation Fellow.[11] He took an extended leave of absence from Columbia in 1979 to become director of Fermilab.[12] Resigning from Columbia (and retiring from Fermilab) in 1989 to teach briefly at the University of Chicago.[13] He then moved to the physics department of the Illinois Institute of Technology, where he served as the Pritzker Professor of Science.[13] In 1991, Lederman became President of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.[14]

Lederman was also one of the main proponents of the "Physics First" movement.[15] Also known as "Right-side Up Science" and "Biology Last," this movement seeks to rearrange the current high school science curriculum so that physics precedes chemistry and biology.[15]
A former president of the American Physical Society, Lederman also received the National Medal of Science, the Wolf Prize and the Ernest O. Lawrence Medal.[14][16] Lederman served as President of the Board of Sponsors of the Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, and at the time of his death was Chair Emeritus.[17] He also served on the board of trustees for Science Service, now known as Society for Science & the Public, from 1989 to 1992, and was a member of the JASON defense advisory group.[18]

In 1956, parity is violated in weak interactions. R. L. Garwin, Leon Lederman, and R. Weinrich modified an existing cyclotron experiment, and they immediately verified the parity violation.[19] They delayed publication of their results until after Wu's group was ready, and the two papers appeared back to back in the same physics journal.

Among his achievements are the discovery of the muon neutrino in 1962 and the bottom quark in 1977.[16] These helped establish his reputation as among the top particle physicists.[16]

In 1977, a group of physicists, the E288 experiment team, led by Lederman announced that a particle with a mass of about 6.0 GeV was being produced by the Fermilab particle accelerator.[16] After taking further data, the group discovered that this particle did not actually exist, and the "discovery" was named "Oops-Leon" as a pun on the original name and Lederman's first name.[20]

As the director of Fermilab and subsequent Nobel Prize in Physics winner, Lederman was a prominent supporter[21][22] of the Superconducting Super Collider project, which was endorsed around 1983, and was a major proponent and advocate throughout its lifetime.[23][24] Lederman later wrote his 1993 popular science book The God Particle: If the Universe Is the Answer, What Is the Question? – which sought to promote awareness of the significance of such a project – in the context of the project's last years and the changing political climate of the 1990s.[25] The increasingly moribund project was finally shelved that same year after some $2 billion of expenditures.[21]

In The God Particle he wrote, "The history of atomism is one of reductionism – the effort to reduce all the operations of nature to a small number of laws governing a small number of primordial objects" while stressing the importance of the Higgs boson.[9]:87[26]
In 1988, Lederman received the Nobel Prize for Physics along with Melvin Schwartz and Jack Steinberger "for the neutrino beam method and the demonstration of the doublet structure of the leptons through the discovery of the muon neutrino".[2] Lederman also received the National Medal of Science (1965), the Elliott Cresson Medal for Physics (1976), the Wolf Prize for Physics (1982) and the Enrico Fermi Award (1992).[16]

In 1995, he received the Chicago History Museum "Making History Award" for Distinction in Science Medicine and Technology.[27]
Lederman was an early supporter of Science Debate 2008, an initiative to get the then-candidates for president, Barack Obama and John McCain, to debate the nation's top science policy challenges.[28] In October 2010, Lederman participated in the USA Science and Engineering Festival's Lunch with a Laureate program where middle and high school students engaged in an informal conversation with a Nobel Prize-winning scientist over a brown-bag lunch.[29] Lederman was also a member of the USA Science and Engineering Festival's Advisory Board.[30]

More at Wikipedia.