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RE: Obituaries - pbrower2a - 08-04-2019

Good riddance, and ROAST IN HELL!

Nuon Chea (Khmer: នួន ជា; born Lau Kim Korn; 7 July 1926 – 4 August 2019),[3][4] also known as Long Bunruot (Khmer: ឡុង ប៊ុនរត្ន) or Rungloet Laodi (រុងឡឺត ឡាវឌី Thai: รุ่งเลิศ เหล่าดี),[5] was a Cambodian politician who was the chief ideologist of the Khmer Rouge. He also briefly served as acting Prime Minister of Democratic Kampuchea.

He was commonly known as "Brother Number Two" (Khmer: បងធំទី២), as he was second-in-command to Khmer Rouge leader Pol Pot, General Secretary of the Party, during the Cambodian genocide of 1975–1979. In 2014, Nuon Chea received a life sentence for crimes against humanity, alongside another top-tier Khmer Rouge leader, Khieu Samphan, and a further trial convicted him of the crime of genocide in 2018.

Nuon Chea was born as Lau Kim Lorn at Voat Kor, Battambang in 1926. Nuon's father, Lao Liv, worked as a trader as well as a corn farmer, while his mother, Dos Peanh, was a tailor. An interview by a Japanese researcher in 2003 with Nuon Chea quoted that Liv was Chinese, while Peanh was the daughter of a Chinese immigrant from Shantou and his Khmer wife.[6] In 2011, however, Chea told the Khmer Rouge Tribunal that he was only a quarter Chinese through his half-Chinese father.[7] As a child, Nuon Chea was raised in both Chinese and Khmer customs. The family prayed at a Theravada Buddhist temple, but observed Chinese religious customs during the Lunar New Year and Qingming festival. Nuon Chea started school at seven, and was educated in Thai, French and Khmer.[6]
In the 1940s, Nuon Chea studied law at Thammasat University in Bangkok and worked part-time for the Thai Ministry of Foreign Affairs. He began his political activities in the Communist Party of Siam in Bangkok.[8] He was elected Deputy General Secretary of the Workers Party of Kampuchea (later renamed as the Communist Party of Kampuchea) in September 1960.[9] In Democratic Kampuchea, he was generally known as "Brother Number Two." Unlike most of the leaders of Khmer Rouge, Chea did not study in Paris.

As documented in the Soviet archives, Nuon Chea played a major role in negotiating the North Vietnamese invasion of Cambodia in 1970, with the intent of forcing the collapse of Lon Nol's government: "In April–May 1970, many North Vietnamese forces entered Cambodia in response to the call for help addressed to Vietnam not by Pol Pot, but by his deputy Nuon Chea. Nguyen Co Thach recalls: "Nuon Chea has asked for help and we have liberated five provinces of Cambodia in ten days." In 1970, in fact, Vietnamese forces occupied almost a quarter of the territory of Cambodia, and the zone of communist control grew several times, as power in the so-called liberated regions was given to the CPK [Khmer Rouge]. At that time relations between Pol Pot and the North Vietnamese leaders were especially warm."[10] The North Vietnamese trusted Nuon Chea more than Pol Pot or Ieng Sary, although Chea "consistently and consciously deceived the Vietnamese principals concerning the real plans of the Khmer leadership." As a result, "Hanoi did not undertake any action to change the power pattern within the top ranks of the Communist Party to their own benefit."[10]

As the recently proclaimed state legislature, the Kampuchean People's Representative Assembly held its first plenary session during 11–13 April 1976, Chea was elected president of its Standing Committee. He briefly held office as acting prime minister when Pol Pot resigned for one month, citing health reasons.[11] According to Dmitry Mosyakov, "In October 1978, Hanoi still believed that 'there were two prominent party figures in Phnom Penh who sympathized with Vietnam—Nuon Chea and the former first secretary of the Eastern Zone, So Phim....Vietnamese hopes that these figures would head an uprising against Pol Pot turned out to be groundless: So Phim perished during the revolt in June 1978, while Nuon Chea, as it is known, turned out to be one of the most devoted followers of Pol Pot—he did not defect to the Vietnamese side....It is difficult to understand why until the end of 1978 it was believed in Hanoi that Nuon Chea was 'their man' in spite of the fact that all previous experience should have proved quite the contrary. Was Hanoi unaware of his permanent siding with Pol Pot, his demands that 'the Vietnamese minority should not be allowed to reside in Kampuchea', his extreme cruelty, as well as of the fact that, 'in comparison with Nuon Chea, people considered Pol Pot a paragon of kindness'?"[10] Nuon Chea was forced to abandon his position as president of the Assembly, along with all others as the Vietnamese captured Phnom Penh in January 1979.

In December 1998, Chea surrendered as part of the last remnants of Khmer Rouge resistance which was based in Pailin near the Thailand border.[12] The government under Prime Minister Hun Sen, himself a former member of the Khmer Rouge, agreed to forsake attempts to prosecute Chea, a decision that was condemned by Western nations.[13]

On 19 September 2007, 81 year old Chea was arrested at his home in Pailin and flown to the Khmer Rouge Tribunal in Phnom Penh, which charged him with war crimes and crimes against humanity[14] and was held continuously in detention ever since. In February 2008, Chea told the court that his case should be handled according to international standards. He argued that the court should delay proceedings because his Dutch lawyer, Michiel Pestman, had not yet arrived.[15] In May 2013, Chea told the court and the victims' families, "I feel remorseful for the crimes that were committed intentionally or unintentionally, whether or not I had known about it or not known about it."[16] On 7 August 2014, the court convicted Chea of crimes against humanity and sentenced him to imprisonment for the remainder of his life.[17] His lawyer immediately announced that Chea would appeal against his conviction.[18] Chea faced a separate trial for the crime of genocide in the same court.[19][20] The court found him and Khieu Samphan guilty of genocide against the Vietnamese people and the Chams on 16 November 2018.[21]

Nuon Chea died on 4 August 2019 at the Khmer-Soviet Friendship Hospital in Phnom Penh, aged 93.[22]

RE: Obituaries - pbrower2a - 08-05-2019

Don Banks, a longtime NFL writer who worked at Sports Illustrated for 16 years, has died after covering the Pro Football Hall of Fame inductions in Canton, Ohio. He was 56.

Paramedics on Sunday were called to his hotel, where he was pronounced dead. No cause was given.

Banks covered pro football for more than three decades. He recently was hired by the Las Vegas Review-Journal to oversee coverage of the Raiders, who are moving to Las Vegas next year. His first story for the newspaper was published Sunday, hours before his death.

“Banks was an NFL lifer,” his former boss at Sports Illustrated, Peter King, wrote in tribute. “At SI, his ‘Snap Judgments’ column on Sunday evenings became appointment reading for NFL fans.”

Banks also worked for Bleacher Report, the New England Patriots website and The Athletic. He was a longtime voter for The Associated Press NFL individual awards and All-Pro team. Review-Journal executive editor Glenn Cook called Banks a “sports writing institution.”

“No NFL journalist commanded more respect,” he said. “The sport has lost one of its finest storytellers.”

Patriots coach Bill Belichick expressed condolences on behalf of the organization. He described Banks as “very professional, very passionate.”

“I just had a lot of respect for the way he did his job,” he said at a news conference.

Banks is survived by his wife, Alissa, and sons Matt and Micah from a previous marriage.

His newspaper said funeral arrangements are pending.

RE: Obituaries - Marypoza - 08-06-2019

RlP Toni Morrison

RE: Obituaries - pbrower2a - 08-07-2019

If you love the French language, then here was one of the informal enforcers of its quality:

André Goosse (16 April 1926, Liège – 4 August 2019) was a Belgian grammarian. The son-in-law of Maurice Grevisse, he took over editing and updating Grevisse's last book, Le Bon Usage. In 1988, he married the Belgian writer France Bastia. Professor at the Université Catholique de Louvain,[1] he was also the president of the Conseil international de la langue française.
His earliest research was carried out on the work of the 14th century writer from Liège, Jean d'Outremeuse. His work, carried out under the direction of Omer Jodogne, turned into a thesis which he defended in 1959, which was published in 1965.
Notable among his publications is a work exposing and commenting on the Les rectifications de l'orthographe ("corrections to orthography"), which was a report published on 6 December 1990 in the Journal officiel de la République française. Goosse's book, trying to make the debate less personal, was titled La « nouvelle » orthographe, Exposé et commentaires, published by Ed.Duculot in 1991. ISBN 2-8011-0976-2. The topic, according to Goosse, was less of a "reform" than of "developments" aimed at eliminating certain "anomalies and absurdities" as well as "contradictions existing among dictionaries".
Also noteworthy is Une langue, une communauté. Le français en Belgique, published in 1997 with Daniel Blampain, Jean-Marie Klinkenberg, Marc Wilmet ("One language, one community. French in Belgium").
In Novembre 2007, Goosse was the editor, at De Boeck, of the 14th edition of Le Bon Usage.[2] This edition was a complete rewrite. "This time", he told Belgian newspaper Le Soir, "it's like 2,000 pieces of a puzzle have been thrown into the air. Then, we had to rebuild."
André Goosse was the secretary of the Académie de Langue et de Littérature françaises de Belgique (Royal Academy of French Language and Literature in Belgium) from 1996 until 2001.
Goosse died on 4 August 2019, at the age of 93.[3]

RE: Obituaries - pbrower2a - 08-09-2019

Comic strip artist Ernie Colón

Ernie Colón (July 13,[1] 1931[2] – August 8, 2019[3][4]) was an American comics artist known for his wide-ranging career, including working in the fields of children's comics, horror, and nonfiction.

Colón began his professional career at Harvey Comics as a letterer. He later worked, uncredited, as an artist on titles including Richie Rich and Casper the Friendly Ghost.[2] At Harvey, he met Sid Jacobson, who became his editor and frequent creative partner.

His first confirmed, credited work was penciling and inking the two-page story "Kaleidoscope of Fear" in Wham-O Giant Comics #1 (cover-dated April 1967, published by the toy company Wham-O).[5] He drew three issues of Gold Key Comics' Doctor Solar, Man of the Atom (#24–26, July 1968–Jan. 1969), and did much work for Warren Publishing's black-and-white horror-comics magazines Creepy, Eerie, and Vampirella.[5] In 1979, he collaborated with writer Roger McKenzie on an adaptation of Battlestar Galactica for Marvel Comics.[6]

At DC Comics, Colón co-created the historical fantasy Arak, Son of Thunder with writer Roy Thomas and the character was introduced in a special insert in The Warlord #48 (Aug. 1981).[7] Two years later, he introduced Amethyst, Princess of Gemworld with writers Dan Mishkin and Gary Cohn in a similar preview in The Legion of Super-Heroes vol. 2 #298 (April 1983).[8] Colón was an editor for DC Comics from 1982 to 1985[9] and oversaw titles such as Arion, Lord of Atlantis, The Flash, Green Lantern, and Wonder Woman.

His other artistic credits include Grim Ghost for Atlas/Seaboard Comics; Airboy for Eclipse Comics; Magnus: Robot Fighter for Valiant Comics; and Damage Control and Doom 2099 for Marvel Comics. Also for Marvel, Colón wrote, drew, colored and lettered the 1988 science-fiction graphic novel Ax.[10] In the late 1980s, Colón penciled the short-lived Bullwinkle and Rocky series for Marvel's children's imprint Star Comics, edited by Sid Jacoboson. Colón returned to Harvey with Jacobson in the early 1990s and worked on such projects as Monster in My Pocket and Ultraman. From 2005[2] until the tabloid's demise in 2007, he drew the weekly comic strip "SpyCat" in the Weekly World News.[11]

Colón and Jacobson created a graphic novel version of the 9/11 Commission Report titled The 9/11 Report: A Graphic Adaptation (cover-dated Aug. 2006).[12] They released a 160-page follow-up, After 9/11: America's War on Terror (Aug. 2008). The duo's A Graphic Biography: Che was released in 2009. The following year, Farrar, Straus and Giroux published their next collaboration, Anne Frank: The Anne Frank House Authorized Graphic Biography, published by Hill & Wang.[13][14]

He illustrated The Great American Documents: Volume 1 by Ruth Ashby, published by Hill and Wang in May 2014.[15] Colón reunited with writer Dan Mishkin to produce The Warren Commission Report: A Graphic Investigation Into the Kennedy Assassination in 2014.[16]

Ernie Colón at Wikipedia

RE: Obituaries - sbarrera - 08-10-2019

Jeffrey Epstein. Surprise, surprise.

RE: Obituaries - Marypoza - 08-10-2019

(08-10-2019, 08:34 AM)sbarrera Wrote: Jeffrey Epstein. Surprise, surprise.

-- l guess that means the Donald, Prince Andrew, & Mr Bill can RlP too

RE: Obituaries - beechnut79 - 08-10-2019

I am surprised nobody yet mentioned the author Toni Morrison who passed just a couple of days ago.

RE: Obituaries - pbrower2a - 08-10-2019

(08-10-2019, 08:34 AM)sbarrera Wrote: Jeffrey Epstein. Surprise, surprise.

What did he have to live for, anyway? He had tried suicide before and failed... I accept this as knowledge of guilt. This said, a potential embarrassment to some high-placed people will never get to talk. As gangster Lepke Buchalter said of the mobster Abe Reles who was pushed out of a window to his death,

"If you are going to sing like a canary you had better be able to fly like one". (Buchalter would later be convicted in the gangland murder and was electrocuted in Sing Sing).

Someone may have made arrangements to get him a rope and to distract the guards... It seems all too convenient among people who have Mob connections, whether Sicilian or Russian. If there is a Deep State, it wanted to keep Epstein alive so that he could talk.

This man will never hurt another vulnerable young female again with his mad-scientist plots. OK, he is not a legitimate scientist and never was on... real scientists operate scrupulously.

Eugenics, which he revived as himself as the superman progenitor, was a mad... pseudoscience.

[Image: 350px-Eugenics_congress_logo.png]

Logo from the Second International Eugenics Conference, 1921, depicting eugenics as a tree which unites a variety of different fields[1]


God forbid that he be the progenitor of another brilliant sociopath like himself!

RE: Obituaries - Marypoza - 08-10-2019

(08-10-2019, 09:35 AM)beechnut79 Wrote: I am surprised nobody yet mentioned the author Toni Morrison who passed just a couple of days ago.

I did scroll up a little ways

RE: Obituaries - Marypoza - 08-10-2019

(08-06-2019, 09:41 AM)Marypoza Wrote: RlP Toni Morrison

Here she is

RE: Obituaries - pbrower2a - 08-16-2019

Peter Henry Fonda (February 23, 1940 – August 16, 2019) was an American actor. He was the son of Henry Fonda, younger brother of Jane Fonda, and father of Bridget and Justin Fonda (by first wife, Susan Brewer, stepdaughter of Noah Dietrich). Fonda was a part of the counterculture of the 1960s.[2][3]

He was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Original Screenplay for Easy Rider (1969), and the Academy Award for Best Actor for Ulee's Gold (1997). For the latter, he won the Golden Globe Award for Best Actor – Motion Picture Drama. Fonda also won the Golden Globe Award for Best Supporting Actor – Series, Miniseries or Television Film for The Passion of Ayn Rand (1999).

Easy Rider

In 1968, Fonda produced, co-wrote and starred in Easy Rider, directed by Dennis Hopper. Easy Rider is about two long-haired bikers traveling through the southwestern and southern United States where they encounter intolerance and violence. Fonda played "Captain America", a charismatic, laconic man whose motorcycle jacket bore a large American flag across the back. Dennis Hopper played the garrulous "Billy". Jack Nicholson played George Hanson, an alcoholic civil rights lawyer who rides along with them. Fonda co-wrote the screenplay with Terry Southern and Hopper.

Fonda tried to raise finance from Roger Corman and AIP, with whom he had made The Wild Angels and The Trip but they were reluctant to finance a film directed by Hopper. They succeeded getting money from Columbia Pictures. Hopper filmed the cross-country road trip depicted almost entirely on location. Fonda had secured funding of around $360,000 (largely based on the fact he knew that it was the budget Roger Corman needed to make The Wild Angels).[21]

The guitarist and composer Robbie Robertson, of The Band, was so moved by an advance screening that he approached Fonda and tried to convince him to let him write a complete score, even though the film was nearly due for wide release. Fonda declined the offer, instead using Steppenwolf's "Born to Be Wild", Bob Dylan's "It's Alright Ma (I'm Only Bleeding)" sung by the Byrds' Roger McGuinn, and Robertson's own composition "The Weight" performed by The Band, among many other tracks.

The film was released in 1969 to international success. Jack Nicholson was nominated for a Best Supporting Actor Oscar. Fonda, Hopper and Southern were nominated for the Academy Award for Best Original Screenplay. The film grossed over $40 million.[22]

More at Wikipedia.

RE: Obituaries - pbrower2a - 08-18-2019

Jack Whitaker, sportscaster

John Francis "Jack" Whitaker (May 18, 1924 – August 18, 2019)[1] was an American sportscaster who worked for both CBS and ABC. He was a decorated veteran of World War II, fighting in the Normandy Campaign and was wounded by an artillery strike.[2]

He entered network sports in 1961 at CBS, where he did play-by-play for the Philadelphia Eagles of the National Football League and hosted the anthology series CBS Sports Spectacular among other duties. He worked for CBS for more than two decades. Whitaker is probably best remembered for his coverage of golf and horse racing. He covered thoroughbred racing's Triple Crown Events, golf's four major championships, the very first Super Bowl, championship boxing, the National Professional Soccer League in 1967,[3] the North American Soccer League a year later, and Major League Baseball. He was a studio host for The NFL Today at CBS, the network's pre-game show.

The Whitaker character, played by Gary McKillips, appears in the June 2007 ESPN Original Entertainment production Ruffian. The film is based upon the storied 1975 match race between unbeaten filly Ruffian and Kentucky Derby-winning colt Foolish Pleasure. Ruffian broke her leg during the race and was later euthanized. The Whitaker character is shown introducing the race in the paddock area of Belmont Park in New York.

While Whitaker is best known as a sportscaster, he was also a game show host. In the summer of 1966, he hosted The Face Is Familiar, a celebrity panel show for CBS.

In the latter part of his career, Whitaker moved away from play-by-play or color commentary, and became known for his pre-game and post-game essays at major sporting events.

Whitaker was banned from covering the Masters golf tournament for CBS for five years after referring to a patron gallery at Augusta National Golf Club as a "mob" at the end of the 18-hole playoff in 1966. He was allowed to return to the telecast in 1972.[4]
With the death of Dick Enberg on December 21, 2017, Whitaker was the only living play-by-play announcer from the first 21 Super Bowls. He had been the only living television broadcaster from the first seven Super Bowls since the death of Frank Gifford on August 9, 2015.

Moving to ABC in 1982, Whitaker served as a reporter for both news and sports divisions. He was a part of ABC's sports team at the 1988 Winter Olympic Games and the 1984 Winter and Summer Olympic Games. He also reported sports for ABC's World News TonightNightline, and 20/20. He left ABC around 2004, and retired from broadcasting soon after.

RE: Obituaries - pbrower2a - 08-19-2019

Kathleen Blanco, Governor of Louisiana during Hurricane Katrina:

BATON ROUGE, La. (AP) — Even after Hurricane Katrina ended her political career and as cancer ate away her strength, former Louisiana Gov. Kathleen Blanco still described her life as “charmed.” With strength in her faith and her family, the state’s first elected female governor time and again refused to wallow in disappointment or disaster.

Blanco called it an “honor and blessing” to lead Louisiana through the fury and destruction of Katrina. As she knew her end was near from an incurable melanoma, Blanco talked of her final months as a “wonderful time for me.”

A pioneering woman in Louisiana politics, Blanco died Sunday in hospice care in Lafayette. She was 76.

“She was a woman of grace, faith and hope. She has left an eternal mark on all who knew her, because she was generous and unconditional in her love, warm in her embrace and genuinely interested in the welfare of others,” Blanco’s family said in a statement issued by Gov. John Bel Edwards’ office.

A Democrat, Blanco held Louisiana’s top elected job from 2004 to 2008, and served in state government offices for more than two decades. But her legacy rests with Katrina, the devastating August 2005 hurricane that killed more than 1,400 people in Louisiana, displaced hundreds of thousands and inundated 80% of New Orleans.

RE: Obituaries - pbrower2a - 08-23-2019

The billionaire industrialist David Koch, both celebrated and demonised for transforming US politics by pouring money into conservative causes, died on Friday aged 79. 
The world’s eleventh richest man, Mr Koch was the director emeritus of Koch Industries and served as the vice president of the multinational corporation until 2018. He announced he was retiring from his web of political activities last year amid deteriorating health.

In a statement announcing his brother’s death, Charles Koch, the chairman and CEO of Koch Industries, wrote: “It is with a heavy heart that I announce the passing of my brother David.”

Anyone who worked with David surely experienced his giant personality and passion for life. Twenty-seven years ago, David was diagnosed with advanced prostate cancer and given a grim prognosis of a few years to live,” the statement continued. “David liked to say that a combination of brilliant doctors, state-of-the-art medications and his own stubbornness kept the cancer at bay. We can all be grateful that it did, because he was able to touch so many more lives as a result.”

RE: Obituaries - Hintergrund - 08-25-2019

(08-16-2019, 11:49 PM)pbrower2a Wrote: Peter Henry Fonda (February 23, 1940 – August 16, 2019) was an American actor. He was the son of Henry Fonda, younger brother of Jane Fonda, and father of Bridget and Justin Fonda (by first wife, Susan Brewer, stepdaughter of Noah Dietrich). Fonda was a part of the counterculture of the 1960s.[2][3]

Peter Fonda, Dennis Hopper, Jack Nicholson, Phil Spector... all of them Silents. Yes, the Boomer kids partied, but the Silents drove the magic bus.

RE: Obituaries - pbrower2a - 08-31-2019

Valerie Harper ("Rhoda"), at age 80.

[Image: gettyimages-166775211_custom-48ce8740b51...00-c85.jpg]

August 30, 20197:31 PM ET
Heard on All Things Considered

[Image: npr_35140969_sq-786c9a116c74bd6ffbeb2162...00-c85.jpg]

[Image: ap_710509028_custom-121f487bca2e604d1f3e...00-c85.jpg]
Enlarge this image

Valerie Harper and Mary Tyler Moore Showco-star Ed Asner pose with their Emmys at the 1971 award show.

Updated at 8:08 p.m. ET

One of TV's most beloved sidekicks has died. Valerie Harper, best known for playing Rhoda Morgenstern on The Mary Tyler Moore Show, died Friday in Los Angeles. She was 80.

As the blunt, self-deprecating Rhoda, Harper created one of the most beloved sitcom characters of the 1970s. The Mary Tyler Moore Showwas a ratings powerhouse, centered on best friends Rhoda and Mary Richards, two single women making their way through life, love and career.

Rhoda was the perfect foil for the buttoned-up Mary, played by Mary Tyler Moore. "Rhoda had this wonderful quality of saying the unsayable," Harper told NPR in 2010. She would say things "that Mary Richards would not say because she's too much of a lady or, you know, it's not polite. Rhoda, the New Yorker from the Bronx, would just say it straight out."
[Image: gettyimages-1699332_sq-b9084847bad355725...00-c85.jpg]

The show set high standards for every sitcom that followed, and generations of TV writers and actors cite it as a major influence, including Tina Fey, Lena Dunham and Modern Family star Julie Bowen. Robert Thompson, who teaches television and popular culture at Syracuse University, says Harper and Moore were one of the great comedy teams of all time: "We had Lucy and Ethel — they were kind of the Romulus and Remus of TV girlfriends — and we get a lot thereafter: Laverne and Shirley, and Cagney and Lacey. But Rhoda and Mary, when they were on stage together, even though they weren't dancing, it was kind of like watching [Fred] Astaire and [Ginger] Rogers. They just worked perfectly together."

Harper's daughter Cristina Cacciotti tweeted her father Anthony Cacciotti's statement saying, "My beautiful caring wife of nearly 40 years has passed away ... Rest In Peace, mia Valeria."

RE: Obituaries - Eric the Green - 08-31-2019

Bye Mar, Bye Rhoda. See you on the other side. I'll be watching.

RE: Obituaries - pbrower2a - 09-02-2019

Good acting on her part. She played a Jewish woman for several years, and got away with it. That is tricky. She convinced me that she was Jewish by birth and culture.

RE: Obituaries - pbrower2a - 09-06-2019

Robert Mugabe, revolutionary and dictator in Zimbabwe:

Quote:Robert Gabriel Mugabe (/mʊˈɡɑːbi/;[2] Shona: [muɡaɓe]; 21 February 1924 – 6 September 2019)[3] was a Zimbabwean revolutionary and politician who served as Prime Minister of Zimbabwe from 1980 to 1987 and then as President from 1987 to 2017. He chaired the Zimbabwe African National Union (ZANU) group from 1975 to 1980 and led its successor political party, the ZANU – Patriotic Front (ZANU–PF), from 1980 to 2017. Ideologically an African nationalist, during the 1970s and 1980s he identified as a Marxist–Leninist. He identified as a socialist after the 1990s. His policies have been described as Mugabeism.

Mugabe was born to a poor Shona family in KutamaSouthern Rhodesia. Following an education at Kutama College and the University of Fort Hare, he worked as a school teacher in Southern Rhodesia, Northern Rhodesia, and Ghana. Angered that Southern Rhodesia was a colony of the British Empire governed by its white minority, Mugabe embraced Marxism and joined African nationalist protests calling for an independent state led by representatives of the black majority. After making anti-government comments, he was convicted of sedition and imprisoned between 1964 and 1974. On release, he fled to Mozambique, established his leadership of ZANU, and oversaw ZANU's role in the Rhodesian Bush War, fighting Ian Smith's predominantly white government. He reluctantly took part in the peace negotiations brokered by the United Kingdom that resulted in the Lancaster House Agreement. The agreement ended the war and resulted in the 1980 general election, at which Mugabe led ZANU-PF to victory. As Prime Minister of the newly renamed Zimbabwe, Mugabe's administration expanded healthcare and education and—despite his professed Marxist desire for a socialist society—adhered largely to mainstream, conservative economic policies.
Mugabe's calls for racial reconciliation failed to stem growing white emigration, while relations with Joshua Nkomo's Zimbabwe African People's Union (ZAPU) also deteriorated. In the Gukurahundi of 1982–1985, Mugabe's Fifth Brigade crushed ZAPU-linked opposition in Matabeleland in a campaign that killed at least 10,000 people, mostly Ndebele civilians. Internationally, he sent troops into the Second Congo War and chaired the Non-Aligned Movement (1986–89), the Organisation of African Unity (1997–98), and the African Union (2015–16). Pursuing decolonisation, Mugabe emphasised the redistribution of land controlled by white farmers to landless blacks, initially on a "willing seller–willing buyer" basis. Frustrated at the slow rate of redistribution, from 2000 he encouraged black Zimbabweans to violently seize white-owned farms. Food production was severely impacted, leading to famine, drastic economic decline, and international sanctions. Opposition to Mugabe grew, but he was re-elected in 20022008, and 2013 through campaigns dominated by violence, electoral fraud, and nationalistic appeals to his rural Shona voter base. In 2017, members of his own party ousted him in a coup, replacing him with former Vice President Emmerson Mnangagwa.
Having dominated Zimbabwe's politics for nearly four decades, Mugabe was a controversial figure. He was praised as a revolutionary hero of the African liberation struggle who helped free Zimbabwe from British colonialismimperialism, and white minority rule. Critics accused Mugabe of being a dictator responsible for economic mismanagement, widespread corruptionanti-white racismhuman rights abuses, and crimes against humanity.

Much more at Wikipedia.